terça-feira, julho 22, 2003
Hayek e Orwell pt II
Acerca do post anterior encontrei o seguinte artigo do destaco algumas passagens
Nota: A ordem do texto foi deliberadamente alterada
1. Os ideias orwellianos
a) A recusa do abandono do socialismo
Being an anti-communist did not mean for Orwell the severing of a connection with the left. What he knew was the grotesqueness of any socialism that did not begin with a complete repudiation of the "Soviet myth". Towards the end of his life Orwell explained: "Every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for democratic socialism."
b) Liberdade e Igualitarismo
But Orwell did not love only liberty. He also loved equality. In Republican Spain he fleetingly experienced a world where "the working class was in the saddle". This was the kind of world in which Orwell wanted to live. His great Russian Revolution fable, Animal Farm, is essentially the story of the hope for equality cruelly betrayed
c) a crítica liberal do igualitarismo
In my opinion Orwell's greatest failure as a writer was his unwillingness to think seriously about the tension between the ideals he loved, liberty and equality. Even in his own age, intelligent liberals argued that in any advanced industrial society the kind of equality of which Orwell dreamed could only be achieved by the creation of the kind of oppressive state he loathed.
2. A experiência da guerra civil espanhola
a) a experiência do estado totalitário e o controlo da informação
Orwell's serious political thinking began with his involvement on the anti-fascist side in the Spanish Civil War. What Orwell experienced were the brutal attempts by the pro-communist forces to crush their Republican opponents, the Anarchists and Trotskyists.
From this experience all his subsequent political writing flowed. Through the power of his political imagination, Orwell's fleeting experience of the suppression behind Republican lines in Spain led him to an understanding of the atmosphere of the totalitarian state.
On the basis of the astonishing dishonesty of the ideologues and the press concerning what was happening in Spain, Orwell came to fear a future world from which the ideal of objective truth had vanished and where those who held power were able to control the future through their control over the past. It was in Spain, moreover, that Orwell first saw the peculiar corruption to which those intellectuals who attached themselves to a country or a cause were prone.
b) A génese de "1984"
For Orwell the essence of totalitarianism was the attack it waged against freedom. After Spain he lived with a permanent dread that the liberal civilisation into which he had been born was gradually being destroyed. This was the source of 1984, the most important warning he wrote about the abuse of absolute state power in the technological age.
3. A crítica de Orwell a "The Road to Serfdom"
On one occasion Orwell wrote a brief review of the most important anti-socialist manifesto of the 20th century, Hayek's Road to Serfdom. Orwell was honest enough to admit the truth of Hayek's warning that a "collectivist" economy gives to a "tyrannical minority" terrible potential power. But because he believed that the evils of laissez faire capitalism were even worse, all he could offer as an answer to Hayek was a politics where "the concept of right and wrong" had been restored. This is astonishingly lame. In the end, because Orwell's democratic socialism was founded on ethics rather than economics, it proved utterly ulnerable to the power of the neo-liberal critique.
posted by Miguel Noronha 5:27 da tarde
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